the anatomical position: medial, lateral,  proximal, distal, superior

Anatomy Introduction & Back

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1. To define and demonstrate the following terms relative to the anatomical position: medial, lateral,  proximal, distal, superior, inferior, deep, superficial, palmar, plantar, anterior/ventral, posterior/dorsal,  and caudal. 

2. To describe the following anatomical planes: axial / transverse / horizontal, sagittal and coronal.

 3. To define and demonstrate the terms used to describe the movements of the limbs and vertebral  column: flexion, extension, lateral flexion, pronation, supination, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral  rotation, inversion, eversion, plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, protraction, retraction and circumduction. 

4. To describe the basic characteristics of various systems of the body: integumentary, skeletal, muscular,  cardiovascular, and lymphatic. To understand the basic principles of radiology.

 5. To understand the organization and mechanism of the peripheral nervous system. Back: At the end of this section, students should be able… 

1. To describe the main anatomical features of a typical vertebra; identify the atlas, axis, typical cervical,  thoracic, lumbar vertebrae and sacrum and recognize their characteristic features. 

2. To describe the structures, regions and functions of the vertebral column; describe the range of  movement of the entire vertebral column and its individual regions; explain what makes spinal injuries  stable and unstable.

 3. To describe the anatomy of intervertebral facet joints and intervertebral discs; explain the role of the  discs in weight bearing by the vertebral column and give examples of common disc lesions, and how they  may impinge upon spinal nerve roots and / or the spinal cord. 

4. To interpret standard diagnostic images of the vertebral column and be able to recognize common  abnormalities.

 5. To identify the principal muscle groups and ligaments of the vertebral column and surface features in  order to be able to perform an examination of the back, discuss their functional role in stability and  movement of the vertebral column and describe the anatomical basis of back pain. 

6. To describe surface features and muscle groups of the back; the functions of major muscles of back and  their innervation. 

7. To describe the anatomy of a spinal nerve (e.g., as exemplified by a thoracic spinal nerve, including its  origin from dorsal and ventral spinal roots, its main motor and cutaneous branches and any autonomic  component. 

 8. To describe the anatomical relationships of the meninges to the spinal cord and dorsal and ventral  nerve roots, particularly in relation to root compression and the placement of epidural and spinal  injections; describe the anatomy of lumbar puncture 

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